essential oils that are considered detoxifiers and rubefacients and are known for their anti-rheumatic effects can boost even the best massage technique and help provide lasting relief. Part two explores the use of anti-rheumatic, detoxifying and rubefacient essences. Juniper and rosemary also have rubefacient properties that increase circulation and bring a feeling of warmth to relieve stiffness. Other rubefacient oils are black pepper (Piper nigrum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris ct. linalool). The rubefacient oils might not be used during the acute inflammatory onset of joint pain but are very helpful during chronic stages.